Isoprenoids are the most chemically diverse compounds found in nature. They are present in all organisms and have essential roles in membrane structure, redox chemistry, reproductive cycles, growth regulation, signal transduction and defense mechanisms. Advantages of microbial production of carotenoids include the ability of microorganisms to use low cost substrates, the optimized control of cultivation, minimized production time and the process can be economically scaled-up.
Keywords : Microbial Cell Factory, Isoprenoids, Carotenoids, Phytoene/Phytofluene, Retinoids, Bisabolol, Taxadiene, Santalene
Sugars are easily found and abundant in nature. It has important roles in organisms as a background of body, fuel, energy storage, and sparing of protein as well as properties in food as enhancer of tastes, aromas, weight, volume, texture, and color. Recently, besides that, some sugars have been revealed for their various biological functions like ultra-low calorie sweetener, anti-diabetic effect, obesity control, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory, called as functional sugars. For this reasons, functional sugars have been numerous attention widely in synthetic, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, food, and flavor industries.
Keywords: 3rd Generation Sugars, Sugar Alcohols, Psicose, Allose, Mannitol, Pinitol, Chiroinocitol, Glucosylglycerol
Biorefinery is a promising way to generate different kind of valuable products with short processing time. Zero Waste Biorefinery, could be also called as Carbon Neutral Biorefinery is a new technology that conserves and recovers all resources to eliminate the volume of waste materials produced by industry that would be otherwise be burned or buried. The goal of Zero Waste Biorefinery is thus to process and convert waste streams produced at various industrial sites into valuable chemical compounds, thereby closing the production loop with no net waste. Zero waste biorefineries could play a key role in the sustainable economic system and the environment. This technology uses resources in a more efficient way, thus diminishing the overall generation of wastes and enabling the recovery of unavoidable discards from the industrial sites as the source of resources for the generation of new valuable products. Glycerol is a by-product accompanying the production of biodiesel. It is reported that 10 lb of crude glycerol is generated for every 100 lb of biodiesel produced by trans-esterification of vegetable oils or animal fats. In recent years there has been growing interest in biorefinery industries towards the utilization of surplus glycerol. Triacetin, also called glycerin triacetate, is used as a fuel additive to improve the freezing and viscosity properties of biodiesel as well as an antiknock agent which can reduce engine knocking in gasoline. Engine performance can be significantly improved by blending 10% triacetin with biodiesel. Bioconversions of surplus glycerol into triacetin along with biodiesel production could serve as a complete on-site Zero Waste Biorefinery. Here, we metabolically engineered Escherichia coli for the production of triacetin using surplus glycerol from the biodiesel refinery’s site. Our strategy of Zero Waste Biorefinery closing the loop by utilizing side-streams from the biodiesel industry and thus could benefit the biodiesel industry by utilizing waste glycerol that is generated during biodiesel production.
Keywords: Zero Waste Biorefinery, Carbon Neutral Biorefinery, Consolidated Bioprocess, Acetin, Glycerol, Biofuel, Biodiesel
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas due to its ability to trap infrared radiation in the atmosphere thereby increasing the global temperature. It is also estimated that the demand for milk product and meat will increase to 1.04 million tons and 465 million tons by 2050, respectively. It is a growing concern that the population growth, increased lifespan and improving economic prosperity might increase the global demand for animal products which subsequently, will elevate the greenhouse gas production and inevitably speed up global warming. Therefore, great deal of attention has been given towards enteric methane emission from the ruminants. Methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are present in both aerobic and anaerobic environments where these bacteria oxidize methane as a sole carbon and energy source. Several groups have demonstrated the occurrence of methane oxidation and some have successfully isolated MOB from various ruminants. However, very limited studies have been done so far in order to use MOB as a probiotic in rumen to reduce methane emission. We strive to improve the overall productivity of the animal and achieve a sustainable environment using methanotrophs as probiotic.
Keywords: Greenhouse effect, Ruminants, Methane, Methanotrophs, Methane Oxidizing Bacteria (MOB), Microbiome
We are working on engineering a bacterial strain, Bacillus subtilis 168 for the production of proteins, using air (nitrogen and carbon dioxide) as nutrients sources. Several candidates including ovalbumin, collagen, ferritin, β-lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, and myoglobin were selected for expression in B. subtilis 168, using a shuttle vector, pHT01, and subsequent chromosomal integration. In order to improve industrial applicability, the B. subtilis strain will also be engineered by CRISPR-Cas9 system to deactivate genes that are responsible for smell production and extracellular protein secretion such as amyE etc.
Keywords : Production of air proteins, Metabolic engineering, Bacillus subtilis, Ovalbumin, Collagen, Ferritin, β-Lactoglobulin, α-Lactalbumin, Myoglobin